Mayfair Homes provide you free Home Building Terms and Construction term glossary. This common construction term an home builders directory Canada will give you an idea to find your new custom home builder and understand the construction terms which usually used in construction process.
Addendum: A change or addition to the contract documents issued after the documents have been released but before the bids are due.
Add-ons: A term commonly used in construction estimating to describe the taxes, overhead, and profit added to the estimate after all other costs have been calculated.
Advertisement for bids: A public notice, usually published in newspapers, trade magazines, and journals, providing information regarding bidding procedures for public projects.
Agency CM: A construction management project delivery option in which the construction manager acts in the owner’s best interests at every stage of the project, from design through construction. The construction manager offers advice and project management services to the owner but is not financially responsible for the construction.
Architectural programming: The research and decision-making process initiated by an owner, usually with the help of an architect or other programming specialist that identifies the basic needs of the client and the parameters of the project to be designed and ultimately built by a construction professional. (Also see the program.)
As-built drawings: Record drawings completed by the contractor and turned over to the owner at the end of the project identifying any changes or adjustments made to the conditions and mentions of the work relative to the original plans and specifications.
At-risk CM: A project delivery option where the construction manager serves as a consultant to the owner in the development and design phases of the project and then as the general contractor during the construction phase.
Back charge: An amount of money charged against a subcontractor for work that the general contractor performed because the subcontractor failed to do so.
Backward pass: A scheduling technique used to calculate an activity’s late start and late finish.
Base Isolators: Large shock absorbers typically made of alternating layers of rubber and steel (or lead) attached to a building’s foundation to allow movement of the structure without causing damage.
Best value: Any selection process where proposals contain both price and qualitative components and where the award is based upon a combination of price and qualitative considerations.
Brownfield sites: Properties that are abandoned or underused because of historic environmental contamination.
Building information modeling (BIM): A digital representation of the physical and functional characteristics of a building displayed as a 3D model with the added capability to integrate a whole array of design and construction data related to cost, schedule, materials, assembly, maintenance, energy use, and more.
Callback: A request from an owner that a contractor return to the job site to correct or redo some item of work.
Central repository approach: The concept that all project information can be loaded into one database to create a single building information model.
Change Order: Requests made by the owner to add or subtract features to the scope of the project resulting in changes to the contract.
Claim: An issue that occurs during construction and remains unresolved after the job is complete.
Clash detection: A process that utilizes a BIM 3D model to analyze interferences in the design by resolving conflicts among the various material and structural systems.
Closed Bid: Used with private projects and is not open to the public. Bidding is by invitation only, via an invitation for bids, to a selected list of contractors.
Cofferdam: A temporary watertight enclosure erected to prevent water from seeping into an area, allowing construction to take place in the water-free space.
Commissioning: A process of testing and checking all equipment and systems within the facility at the end of a project to assure proper functioning and operation. It may also include the training of owner personnel in the operation and maintenance of the equipment.
Concrete washout station: A temporary container installed on a construction site to collect all water runoff from the washing of trucks, tools, and equipment associated with concrete. The container may prefabricated and delivered or built on-site.
Constructability reviews: A design review process in which experienced contractors and construction managers work with designers to ensure that the details of the design actually can be built in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The process entails review of materials, application, installation techniques, field execution, and building systems.
Construction management: The planning, scheduling, evaluation, and controlling of construction tasks and activities to accomplish specific objectives outlined in the contract documents.
Construction model: A building information model, typically prepared by a contractor, that links construction-specific information, such as work breakdown structures and cost data, to project elements in the 3D model.
Contingency: An amount of money added to an estimate to cover unknown conditions or risk factors.
Contract documents: The drawings, conditions, terms, and specifications setting forth the requirements for constructing the project.
Contract indemnification: Provisions in a contract that provide protection against possible financial loss, damage, or liability.
Cost code: A reference number used to track cost and schedule information on materials, labor, sub-contracts, equipment, overhead, and fees throughout the project control process.
Cost control: A continuous monitoring process used to track the variances between actual performance and planned performance on a project, specifically concerning cost and time.
Crashing the schedule: To take steps that accelerate activities in the schedule, resulting in an earlier completion date.
Critical path: The longest path through a network diagram schedule, which includes those activities that have zero days of float. The critical path determines the overall project duration.
Curtain wall: An exterior cladding system that is sup -ported entirely by the frame of the building, rather than being self-supporting or load-bearing.
Design-bid-build: A project delivery method in which the owner holds two separate contracts for design and construction. This method is often referred to as the traditional project delivery method.
Design-build: A project delivery method in which there is only one contract between the owner and a design-build entity. The design-builder is responsible for both the design and the construction of the project. This method is often referred to as single-source project delivery.
Design-intent model: A building information model prepared by an architect, primarily intended to communicate architectural design information.
Digitizer: An electronic pen-shaped stylus or mouse curser used in conjunction with software to assist in the quantity takeoff task in estimating
Distributed repository approach: The concept that the BIM consists of a collection of separate databases maintained within distinct programs that can communicate in a way that allows them to exchange at least some of their data.
Dry shacks: Facilities that may be constructed on-site or brought in as modular units equipped with tables and storage lockers. They provide a dry place for workers to eat their lunch and change their clothes. Union agreements often require that the contractor provide a dry shack on-site.
Earned value analysis: A technique used in construction to determine the estimated value (earned value) of work completed to date on a project and comparing that to the actual work completed on the project.
Escalation clause: Usually negotiated into the construction contract when there is suspicion that some pricing component of the estimate is in a high state of flux. The clause allows for some fluctuation in the contract price based upon the current pricing of the suspected component.
Fast tracking: A practice utilized to speed up a job by overlapping the design phase and the construction phase of a project. This is often applied in design-build or construction management project delivery.
Field observation report (FOR): A report used to track questionable quality and safety performance on the job site. Employees, subcontractors, and visiting vendors are encouraged to report any work item suspected of being installed incorrectly or failing to meet a quality or safety standard. Each of these observations is logged by the quality engineer or person in charge of the task and each item in question is verified or corrected as needed.
Float: The amount of leeway available to start or complete an individual schedule activity before it affects the planned project completion.
Forecasts: Periodic predictions stated in reports as to the final cost and schedule outcomes on a project while the work is still ongoing.
Forward pass: A scheduling technique used to calculate an activity’s early start and early finish. The forward pass must be completed before the project duration can be determined.
Gantt chart: Considered revolutionary when Henry Gantt first published this planning tool around 1910, a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. It displays the start and finish dates of the various activities of a project.
Guaranteed maximum price (GMP): A contract methodology in which the contractor is reimbursed for actual costs of materials, labor, equipment, sub-contracts, overhead, and profit up to a maximum fixed-price amount. Any costs over the maximum price shall be borne by the contractor. Any savings below the maximum price will revert to the owner.
This type of contract is often implemented when design is less than 100 percent complete.
Integrated project delivery (IPD): Any project delivery method that contractually engages the contractor responsible for constructing the project at the beginning of the design process. Both design-build and at-risk CM are considered IPD models.
Interoperability: The capability of a system or program to interact with other systems or programs without access or implementation limitations or restrictions.
Invitation for bids: A notification sent to a selected list of contractors, furnishing information on the submission of bids on a private project.
Joint venture: When two or more construction companies enter into an agreement for a one-time, single-project commitment and share resources and risks to manage and build the project.
Latent design defect: Defects or flaws in design details that are not known until after the construction is complete and time has passed, allowing for the flaw or defect to show itself.
Lay down area: A designated area on the building site where large orders can be stored and sorted in an organized manner so that the parts can be easily identified for use on the project.
Lead time: The amount of time it takes for a product or equipment to be delivered to the job site. Products that have a long delivery time are called long-lead-time items and require special planning considerations.
Lean principles: Principles that stem from the Toyota Production System (TPS) and focus on creating more value for customers with less work and the elimination of waste. These principles are now being applied to the construction industry.
Liquidated damages: A daily amount of money paid by the contractor to the owner for each day that the project fails to meet the completion date specified in the contract. Not all contracts contain a liquidated damages clause.
Material safety data sheet (MSDS): An information sheet documenting pertinent chemical information on the various products used in construction.
Mock-up: Physical models or small samples constructed to allow the architect and owner to review the appearance and function of materials, colors, textures, and other aesthetic features before incorporating them into the actual project.
Multiple prime: A contracting methodology in which the owner bypasses the use of a general con-tractor and enters into multiple separate contracts with trade or specialty contractors for the various sections of the work associated with the project, such as concrete, framing, mechanical, and electrical work. Each of the specialty contractors involved becomes a prime contractor on the project.
Network diagram: A common type of construction schedule, also called the critical path method (CPM) that depicts a continuous chain of activities showing both activity durations and the relationship of the activities. There are two types of network diagrams: activity-on-arrow (AOA) and activity-on-node (AON).
Network logic: The order in which activities are sequenced in the network diagram relative to their interdependent relationships.
Notice to proceed: The owner’s official notification to the contractor to start work on the project. The contractor may or may not begin on the exact day of the notice but is authorized to proceed in whatever manner deemed appropriate.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): The federal agency responsible for establishing safety standards for construction and all other industries in the Canada. The agency also has the authority to enforce those standards through rigorous inspections at the job site and to issue citations to and assess fines against any contractor or subcontractor for violating these standards.
Open bid: A competitive bidding requirement for all public projects. An open bid is one that is advertised publicly and allows any qualified contractor to submit a bid on the project.
Partnering: A team-building technique, calling upon the parties to the construction contract to establish a common set of project goals and objectives and develop a mutually acceptable protocol for communication and conflict resolution through a formal agreement.
Perspective drawing: A three-dimensional drawing representing width, length, and the height of a structure.
Precedence diagram: A graphic presentation of a schedule depicting project activities on a node with an arrow that depicts the dependencies that exist between the activities.
Preparatory inspection: Inspections, sometimes called pre-inspections that are designed to check progress and make sure that everything is ready for the next stage of construction.
Prequalification: The process in which an owner, based upon minimum financial, management, and other qualitative data, determines whether a construction firm is fundamentally qualified to compete for a certain project, or class of projects.
Price proposal: The part of a design-build proposal that stipulates the price at which the design-builder will provide the design and construction services necessary to complete the project.
Program: A written statement that identifies and describes an owner or end user’s needs and requirements for a facility. Every design starts with a pro-gram. (Also see architectural programming.)
Project delivery: A comprehensive process by which a building, facility, or structure is designed and constructed.
Public-private partnership: A business venture approach whereby a public sector authority and a private enterprise join forces and combine resources to deliver government projects aimed at serving the public good.
Punch list: The minor adjustments, repairs, and work items that must be done before substantial completion can be achieved. The list is prepared jointly by the owner, architect, and contractor. The architect confirms completion of each item on the list.
Quality assurance: A quality management approach that addresses quality at the process level and deals with policies and procedures associated with hiring, training, safety, subcontracting, and procurement.
Quality control: A quality management approach that addresses quality at the project level and deals with conformance to the plans and specs through submittals, mock-ups, shop drawings, inspections, and testing.
Quantity surveyors: Individuals who are responsible for counting up and calculating all of the quantities of materials, labor, and equipment necessary to build a construction project.
Query list: A list of questions and needed clarifications compiled by an estimator as he or she reviews the plans and specs during the estimating process.
Request for information (RFI): A written request for clarification regarding the plans or specifications. The requests are usually made by subcontractors through the general contractor to the architect.
Request for proposals (RFP): A solicitation document, written by the owner, requesting pricing and a technical solution for design and/or construction services.
Request for qualifications (RFQ): A document issued by the owner prior to an RFP to solicit con -tractor or design-builder qualifications. The RFQ may be used by the owner to shortlist potential pro-posers, or it may be used by itself as the final competitive submittal employed in qualifications-based selection.
Responsive Bid (or proposal): A bid or proposal package that meets all of the requirements of the solicitation instrument.
Retainage: A certain percentage of money owed to the contractor for work progress that is held back by the owner to encourage completion of the project.
Rework: A term used to describe defective construction work that must be redone or corrected.
Schedule of values: A budget template established early on in the project against which progress payments are measured. The schedule summarizes the total project cost by the various divisions of work.
Scope of work: The parameters defining the over-all extent of work to be included in a construction contract. The project scope is commonly communicated through construction plans and written specifications.
Scope sheet: Similar to a work package, a scope sheet describes the items of work to be performed under a particular trade heading. It often accompanies a subcontractor’s bid or a request for quotation.
Self-performed work: Construction work that is performed by the general contractor’s own forces or labor. This is work that is not subcontracted.
Shop drawing: A supplemental drawing of the plans and specifications, prepared by subcontractors, vendors, or fabricators, that details methods, materials, and models of a product or installation associated with the project.
Short-interval schedules: Also called look-ahead schedules. They focus on a short period of time and a limited scope of work. They usually plan work for a two- to four-week time period.
Short listing: Narrowing the field of offers through the selection of the most qualified proposers on the basis of qualifications.
Site logistics plan: A layout plan identifying the placement of all temporary facilities needed during the construction stage of the project, such as the office trailer, crane, storage, security fencing, dumpsters, and portable toilets.
Slip form: Concrete forms that rise up the wall as construction progresses.
Specifications: The written instructions from an architect or engineer accompanying the project plans pertaining to the quality of materials and workmanship required for the project.
Stereoscopic projection: A 3D video display of a computer-generated virtual reality environment.
Straw wattles: An erosion control product made of compacted straw or other materials such as Geo-textile fibers, bound into a tight, tubular roll that comes in 10–25 foot lengths. These are often specified in a SWPPP.
Submittals: Data, samples, details, colors, and product literature required by the terms of the con-tract to be presented to the architect by the contractor for approval prior to ordering and installation.
Substantial completion: The point at which all punch list work has been completed and the owner can occupy or take possession of the new facility.
Tailgate safety meeting: Weekly safety meetings held at the job site and usually conducted by the superintendent. Also called toolbox safety meetings.
Takeoff: A term commonly used in the construction industry to describe the process of measuring the plans to quantify materials, labor, and equipment.
Technical proposal: The part of a design-build proposal that contains the conceptual design for the project. It may also include information regarding schedule, team makeup, and overall management plan for the project.
Time and materials: Another name for a cost-plus-fee contract. These are the two cost factors that are reimbursed under a cost-plus-fee contract. Time equates to the cost of the labor, and materials equate to the cost of the building products used in the construction.
Total Quality Management (TQM): A recognized quality control and quality assurance program based on continuous quality improvement practices.
Transmittal: A tracking document that serves as a cover notification to any communication, submittal, or shop drawing being transmitted among the project participants.
Unforeseen conditions: Unknown physical conditions at the site that were not anticipated by the owner or the contractor.
Value engineering: A process in which various alternative approaches are evaluated and considered regarding design, product selection, or building system in an effort to provide the most efficient, cost-effective solution possible relative to value in response to the desires of the owner.
Variance: The cost or time difference between the actual project performance and the planned project performance.
Virtual construction: A computerized environment where contractors and their teams can simulate, analyze, and plan the construction of a building project before the actual construction process begins in order to head off problems in the field before they occur.
Weighted criteria: An evaluation method used in best-value selection in which maximum point values are assessed for qualitative and price components of a proposal. The contract award is based upon the highest total points earned.
Will-call: Acts as a verbal confirmation of an order that has been placed prior to the date it is actually due for delivery. The will-call, generally made by the superintendent, occurs just before the scheduled delivery date.
Work breakdown structure (WBS): A tool used by estimators to organize the work of a contract in a hierarchical fashion.
Work package: Detailed items of work bundled together under a particular trade. This is also called a bid package.
Working drawings: The final detailed drawings used for construction. This is also called construction documents or contract documents
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